Written by Robert Bailey

What is PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn infection?

In this short article you will certainly find regarding the interpretation of PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn and also its adverse effect on your computer system. Such ransomware are a form of malware that is specified by on-line scams to require paying the ransom by a sufferer.

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Most of the situations, PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn infection will certainly advise its victims to launch funds move for the objective of reducing the effects of the changes that the Trojan infection has presented to the victim’s device.

PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn Summary

These modifications can be as adheres to:

  • Executable code extraction. Cybercriminals often use binary packers to hinder the malicious code from reverse-engineered by malware analysts. A packer is a tool that compresses, encrypts, and modifies a malicious file’s format. Sometimes packers can be used for legitimate ends, for example, to protect a program against cracking or copying.
  • Injection (inter-process);
  • Injection (Process Hollowing);
  • Injection with CreateRemoteThread in a remote process;
  • Attempts to connect to a dead IP:Port (1 unique times);
  • Creates RWX memory. There is a security trick with memory regions that allows an attacker to fill a buffer with a shellcode and then execute it. Filling a buffer with shellcode isn’t a big deal, it’s just data. The problem arises when the attacker is able to control the instruction pointer (EIP), usually by corrupting a function’s stack frame using a stack-based buffer overflow, and then changing the flow of execution by assigning this pointer to the address of the shellcode.
  • Mimics the system’s user agent string for its own requests;
  • At least one IP Address, Domain, or File Name was found in a crypto call;
  • Starts servers listening on, :0,;
  • Reads data out of its own binary image. The trick that allows the malware to read data out of your computer’s memory.

    Everything you run, type, or click on your computer goes through the memory. This includes passwords, bank account numbers, emails, and other confidential information. With this vulnerability, there is the potential for a malicious program to read that data.

  • The binary likely contains encrypted or compressed data. In this case, encryption is a way of hiding virus’ code from antiviruses and virus’ analysts.
  • Uses Windows utilities for basic functionality;
  • Code injection with CreateRemoteThread in a remote process;
  • Executed a process and injected code into it, probably while unpacking;
  • Tries to unhook or modify Windows functions monitored by Cuckoo;
  • Steals private information from local Internet browsers;
  • A system process is generating network traffic likely as a result of process injection;
  • Installs itself for autorun at Windows startup.

    There is simple tactic using the Windows startup folder located at:
    C:\Users\[user-name]\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\StartMenu\Programs\Startup Shortcut links (.lnk extension) placed in this folder will cause Windows to launch the application each time [user-name] logs into Windows.

    The registry run keys perform the same action, and can be located in different locations:

    • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
    • HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
    • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce
    • HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce
  • Collects information about installed applications;
  • Attempts to modify browser security settings;
  • Harvests credentials from local FTP client softwares;
  • Attempts to interact with an Alternate Data Stream (ADS);
  • Creates a slightly modified copy of itself;
  • Collects information to fingerprint the system. There are behavioral human characteristics that can be used to digitally identify a person to grant access to systems, devices, or data. Unlike passwords and verification codes, fingerprints are fundamental parts of user’s identities. Among the threats blocked on biometric data processing and storage systems is spyware, the malware used in phishing attacks (mostly spyware downloaders and droppers), ransomware, and Banking Trojans as posing the greatest danger.
  • Anomalous binary characteristics. This is a way of hiding virus’ code from antiviruses and virus’ analysts.
  • Ciphering the files located on the target’s disk drive — so the sufferer can no more utilize the data;
  • Preventing normal access to the target’s workstation. This is the typical behavior of a virus called locker. It blocks access to the computer until the victim pays the ransom.
Similar behavior
Related domains Mal/Ransom-EE Mal/Ransom-EE


One of the most typical networks whereby PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn Ransomware are infused are:

  • By methods of phishing e-mails;
  • As a repercussion of user winding up on a resource that hosts a malicious software program;

As quickly as the Trojan is successfully infused, it will either cipher the data on the target’s PC or protect against the device from working in a correct fashion – while likewise placing a ransom note that mentions the demand for the sufferers to impact the repayment for the objective of decrypting the records or bring back the file system back to the initial condition. In a lot of instances, the ransom note will certainly come up when the customer restarts the PC after the system has currently been harmed.

PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn circulation networks.

In numerous corners of the globe, PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn grows by jumps as well as bounds. However, the ransom notes and also tricks of extorting the ransom amount may differ depending on specific neighborhood (regional) setups. The ransom money notes and also methods of obtaining the ransom money amount might differ depending on specific local (regional) setups.

Ransomware injection

As an example:

    Faulty alerts regarding unlicensed software program.

    In specific areas, the Trojans commonly wrongfully report having actually detected some unlicensed applications enabled on the target’s gadget. The alert after that requires the individual to pay the ransom money.

    Faulty declarations about unlawful material.

    In countries where software piracy is much less preferred, this approach is not as efficient for the cyber scams. Alternatively, the PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn popup alert may incorrectly assert to be originating from a police institution as well as will report having located youngster porn or various other unlawful information on the gadget.

    PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn popup alert may wrongly declare to be acquiring from a regulation enforcement organization and also will report having located kid pornography or various other illegal information on the gadget. The alert will likewise contain a demand for the user to pay the ransom.

Technical details

File Info:

crc32: 2ED7B698
md5: b45ab28b021999835389bf33a9138e98
name: B45AB28B021999835389BF33A9138E98.mlw
sha1: 37f282c4a002e02efe7fe14fd4cd0d3858b28056
sha256: ddacc013f864dad4dfa0fe3e8486e3b3dcc97260cd3fc733d85ef5f1f7d41caf
sha512: 89468773350458b50ea11b30317ce5437bb80a16d09a561ce93c6a59e333c7c39129727be21099c47aadf07cf0e0586fb6312624691a67da4530fcea9a65d6af
ssdeep: 12288:RaBMI+qM4wlR6Qb2p/hRrAR1inUcihIotpK:RTKClnap5A1iUcxotw
type: PE32 executable (GUI) Intel 80386, for MS Windows

Version Info:

0: [No Data]

PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn also known as:

GridinSoft Trojan.Ransom.Gen
Bkav W32.AIDetectVM.malware2
Elastic malicious (high confidence)
MicroWorld-eScan Gen:Variant.Cerbu.73064
ALYac Gen:Variant.Cerbu.73064
Cylance Unsafe
VIPRE Trojan.Win32.Generic!BT
Sangfor Malware
K7AntiVirus Trojan ( 004f50451 )
BitDefender Gen:Variant.Cerbu.73064
K7GW Trojan ( 004f50451 )
Cybereason malicious.b02199
BitDefenderTheta Gen:NN.ZexaF.34804.zuX@aWc1cHhi
Symantec ML.Attribute.HighConfidence
ESET-NOD32 a variant of Win32/Injector.DCVJ
APEX Malicious
Avast Win32:Malware-gen
ClamAV Win.Malware.Deliric-9809627-0
Kaspersky Trojan-Spy.Win32.Zbot.yswt
Alibaba TrojanSpy:Win32/Injector.28a69517
NANO-Antivirus Trojan.Win32.Panda.evkpcu
AegisLab Trojan.Win32.Zbot.l!c
Tencent Malware.Win32.Gencirc.10b5892c
Ad-Aware Gen:Variant.Cerbu.73064
Sophos Mal/Ransom-EE
Comodo Malware@#12kpheqo1ktdq
F-Secure Heuristic.HEUR/AGEN.1112598
DrWeb Trojan.PWS.Panda.2401
McAfee-GW-Edition GenericRXDZ-EC!B45AB28B0219
Emsisoft Gen:Variant.Cerbu.73064 (B)
SentinelOne Static AI – Malicious PE – Ransomware
Jiangmin TrojanSpy.Zbot.fkye
Avira HEUR/AGEN.1112598
MAX malware (ai score=99)
Antiy-AVL Trojan[Ransom]/Win32.Foreign
Microsoft PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn
Arcabit Trojan.Cerbu.D11D68
AhnLab-V3 Trojan/Win32.RL_Foreign.R355029
ZoneAlarm Trojan-Spy.Win32.Zbot.yswt
GData Gen:Variant.Cerbu.73064
Cynet Malicious (score: 100)
Acronis suspicious
McAfee GenericRXDZ-EC!B45AB28B0219
VBA32 TrojanSpy.Zbot
Malwarebytes Malware.AI.3526434484
Panda Trj/GdSda.A
Rising Ransom.Foreign!8.292 (CLOUD)
Yandex Trojan.GenAsa!WduygvbRcQI
Ikarus Trojan-Ransom.Foreign
eGambit Unsafe.AI_Score_94%
Fortinet W32/Kryptik.FCAB!tr
AVG Win32:Malware-gen
CrowdStrike win/malicious_confidence_100% (W)
Qihoo-360 Win32/Trojan.Zbot.HwUBRBYA

How to remove PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn ransomware?

Unwanted application has ofter come with other viruses and spyware. This threats can steal account credentials, or crypt your documents for ransom.
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The is an excellent way to deal with recognizing and removing threats – using Gridinsoft Anti-Malware. This program will scan your PC, find and neutralize all suspicious processes.2.

Download GridinSoft Anti-Malware.

You can download GridinSoft Anti-Malware by clicking the button below:

Run the setup file.

When setup file has finished downloading, double-click on the setup-antimalware-fix.exe file to install GridinSoft Anti-Malware on your system.

Run Setup.exe

An User Account Control asking you about to allow GridinSoft Anti-Malware to make changes to your device. So, you should click “Yes” to continue with the installation.

GridinSoft Anti-Malware Setup

Press “Install” button.

GridinSoft Anti-Malware Install

Once installed, Anti-Malware will automatically run.

GridinSoft Anti-Malware Splash-Screen

Wait for the Anti-Malware scan to complete.

GridinSoft Anti-Malware will automatically start scanning your system for PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn files and other malicious programs. This process can take a 20-30 minutes, so I suggest you periodically check on the status of the scan process.

GridinSoft Anti-Malware Scanning

Click on “Clean Now”.

When the scan has finished, you will see the list of infections that GridinSoft Anti-Malware has detected. To remove them click on the “Clean Now” button in right corner.

GridinSoft Anti-Malware Scan Result

Are Your Protected?

GridinSoft Anti-Malware will scan and clean your PC for free in the trial period. The free version offer real-time protection for first 2 days. If you want to be fully protected at all times – I can recommended you to purchase a full version:

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If the guide doesn’t help you to remove PWS:Win32/Zbot!rfn you can always ask me in the comments for getting help.

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  1. GridinSoft Anti-Malware Review from HowToFix site:
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About the author

Robert Bailey

Security Engineer. Interested in malware, reverse engineering, white ethical hacking. I like coding, travelling and bikes.

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